Smith, D J and Gaffney, E. A. and Blake, J R (2009) Mathematical modelling of cilia driven transport of biological fluids. Proceedings of Royal Society of London A, 465 (2108). pp. 24172439. ISSN 20061751

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Abstract
Ciliadriven flow occurs in the airway surface liquid, in the female and male reproductive tracts and enables symmetrybreaking in the embryonic node. Viscoelastic rheology is found in healthy states in some systems, whereas in others may characterise disease, motivating the development of mathematical models that take this effect into account. We derive the fundamental solution for linear viscoelastic flow, which is subsequently used as a basis for slenderbody theory. Our numerical algorithm allows efficient computation of threedimensional timedependent flow, bending moments, power and particle transport. We apply the model to the largeamplitude motion of a single cilium in a linear Maxwell liquid. A relatively short relaxation time of just 0.032 times the beat period significantly reduces forces, bending moments, power and particle transport, the last variable exhibiting exponential decay with relaxation time. A test particle is propelled approximately onefifth as quickly along the direction of cilia beating for scaled relaxation time 0.032 as in the Newtonian case, and mean volume flow is abolished, emphasizing the sensitivity of cilia function to fluid rheology. These results may have implications for flow in the airways, where the transition from Newtonian to viscoelastic rheology in the periciliary fluid may reduce clearance.
Item Type:  Article 

Uncontrolled Keywords:  * cilia * mucus * transport * viscoelastic * Stokeslet * slenderbody theory 
Subjects:  A  C > Biology and other natural sciences 
Research Groups:  Centre for Mathematical Biology 
ID Code:  1370 
Deposited By:  Eamonn Gaffney 
Deposited On:  13 Aug 2011 09:04 
Last Modified:  29 May 2015 19:03 
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